Dental Tourism – Indonesia

Indonesia's Borobudur Temple

Country Profile

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. Indonesia is the world's 14th-largest country in terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area. Its capital and country's most populous city is Jakarta. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber.

Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake. Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito. Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes (at least 150 active volcanoes) and frequent earthquakes. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.

Lying along the equator, Indonesia's climate tends to be relatively even year-round. Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter. For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between April and October with the wet season between November and March. Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the Tropical rainforest climate found in every major island of Indonesia, followed by the Tropical monsoon climate and finally the tropical Savanna climate. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large scale storms pose little hazard to mariners in Indonesia waters; the major danger comes from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits.

National Demographic

Indonesia is a very ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with around 300 distinct native ethnic groups, and 742 different languages and dialects. Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian-speaking peoples whose languages can be traced to Proto-Austronesian. Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia. The largest ethnic groups are the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising 3–4% of the population.

The official language is Indonesian (also known as Bahasa Indonesia) a variant of Malay, which was used in the archipelago. Indonesian is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language. Indonesian is based on the prestige dialect of Malay, that of the Johor-Riau Sultanate, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. Indonesian is universally taught in schools and consequently is spoken by nearly every Indonesian.

While religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution,  the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim majority country with the majority being Sunni Muslims then the Shias and Ahmadis.

Telecommunications

Despite sharp competition, slowing profit margins and a saturating voice and SMS services market, Indonesia’s telecommunications industry still has lucrative prospects as there is still room for growth in data services, value-added services and still relatively low smartphone penetration (as well as low Internet penetration).  At the end of 2013, only 28% of the Indonesian population had Internet access, while smartphone penetration stood at 23% in the urban areas of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesian telecommunication providers have increasingly shifted their focus to data services, for example the development of 4G long term evolution.

Meanwhile, the Indonesian government is also eager to develop the country’s broadband network in an effort to enhance Indonesia’s infrastructure. The government created the ‘Indonesia Broadband Plan’ (Rencana Pita Lebar Indonesia) through which it aims to provide broadband Internet to 30% of the total Indonesian population by 2019. Other targets set in this plan include raising the ratio of Indonesian households connected to broadband (20 Mbps) to 71% by 2019, and fixed broadband (1 Gbps) penetration in buildings to 100%. Meanwhile, mobile broadband penetration is targeted to be raised to 100% as well.

English Literacy

In relation to English fluency, based on the English Proficiency Index of an international English language institution, English First, Indonesia remains positioned below its neighboring countries; namely, Singapore, Malaysia, and even Vietnam. Even though, in this data, the English proficiency of Indonesians falls within the category of ‘moderate’ or intermediate. The lack and the uneven distribution of English proficiency in Indonesia, especially between major cities and rural or remote areas, have several vital implications for the country.

Indonesian sees English as a foreign language so none of them actually use English in daily conversation. However, due to the establishment of English schools and parents are realizing the importance of English, many Indonesian are capable to converse in Basic English and understand Basic English. While if you go to university, especially the good ones, most of the students speak English.

School System

Education in Indonesia falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan or Kemdikbud) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag). In Indonesia, all citizens must undertake twelve years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three in secondary level. Islamic schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.

Schools in Indonesia are run either by the government (negeri) or private sectors (swasta). Some private schools refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that their curriculum to exceeds requirements set by the Ministry of Education, especially with the use of English as medium of instruction or having an international-based curriculum instead of the national one. In Indonesia there are approximately 170,000 primary schools, 40,000 junior-secondary schools and 26,000 high schools. 84 percent of these schools are under the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and the remaining 16 percent under the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA). Private schools only comprise 7% of the total schools number.

Higher Education

The higher education institution is categorized into two types: public and private. Both are supervised by the Ministry of National Education. There are four types of higher education institution: universities, institutes, academies, and polytechnics.

Private universities are generally operated by foundations. Unlike state universities, private institutions have budgets that are almost entirely tuition-driven. A onetime registration fee (which can be quite high) is determined at the time of entry.  Universities with a religious affiliation may receive donations or grants from religious organizations.  The government provides only limited scholarship support for students wishing to attend private universities.

Medical Education

They begin medical school directly after high school. However, some schools are open for students who already have an undergraduate degree; this is usually the case for foreign graduates.

The first 3 – 3.5 years are pre-clinical years. Using the new block system, they learn basic anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and immunology for the first year, then system-based approach for the remaining pre-clinical years. The actual division of the organ systems (musculoskeletal, cardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, genitourinary, endocrinology, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, dermatology and venereology, tropical medicine, hemato-oncology, and emergency medicine) depends on each school.

Students who have completed the first 3.5 years are considered graduates already, and are granted the title “Sarjana Kedokteran” (Bachelor of Medicine). They can quit (studying) at this time and start working non-clinical jobs.

The last 1 to 1.5 years are clinical/clerkship years. They do 9 minor rotations and 5 major ones. They differ by duration: minors last 4-5 weeks, majors last for 10-12 weeks. Minor Rotations: Neurology, radiology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, ENT, oral medicine, dermato-venereology, anesthesiology (including critical care), and forensic medicine. Major Rotations: Surgery (including emergency medicine), internal medicine, obs/gyn, pediatrics, and public health. Upon completing the clerkship, board exam and have taken our Hippocratic Oath, they then graduate as Medical Doctors.

The Dentistry Profession

Oftentimes, the most prominent names in the dental field that offer excellent services usually have centres or clinics operating in the country’s biggest and busiest cities. Unless you’re fine with traveling all the way just to see your dentist, you can opt to take advantage of a business trip or vacation to places like Surabaya, Bali and Jakarta.

The number of registered and active dentists in Indonesia is small compared with the workforce of other health fields. In 2003, there existed 301,215 health professionals working in the various regions; only 7,324 (2.4%) were dentists, 607 (0.2%) were specialist dentists and 5,796 (1.9%) were dental nurses. The dentist-population ratio (per 100,000 people) was 3.4, meaning that on average; every 100,000 people are served by only 3 to 4 dentists. The ratio of specialist dentists is 0.3 and the ratio of dental nurses is 2.7. The highest ratio of dentists is in Jakarta (8.9), the capital of Indonesia, and the lowest ratio of dentists is in Lampung (1.8).

Getting There for Dental Care

Indonesia is well connected to the rest of the world by numerous airlines. Many international flights, especially those to Bali, stop first in Singapore due to runway restrictions at Bali. The principal gateways for entry to Indonesia are Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) and Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport (DPS) (which is sometimes shown as Denpasar International Airport or I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport in schedules). Both are in the midst of expansion and projects. Other airports with international links – albeit limited – include Balikpapan, Medan, Surabaya, Lombok and Manado.

There are four possible land crossings into Indonesia. Regular buses between Pontianak (Kalimantan) and Kuching (Sarawak, eastern Malaysia) pass through the border post at Entikong. You can get a visa on arrival on this route. A crossing is possible between Lubok Antu, Sarawak and Badau, West Kalimantan provided you have a visa in advance. The border crossing between West and East Timor (Timor-Leste) is open. Get a Timor-Leste visa in Kupang; a visa is required when travelling from East to West Timor. The road from Jayapura or Sentani in Indonesia to Vanimo in Papua New Guinea can be crossed, depending on the current political situation. A visa is required if travelling into Indonesia.

There is currently no sea travel between the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. But Major cruise lines often run cruise ships between Bali and Australia. There are also regular ferry services between Dili in Timor-Leste and Oecussi (including a new fast ferry), which borders West Timor. If crossing into Indonesia from here you will need to have organized your visa already in Dili. Regular and comfortable high-speed ferries run the two-hour journey between Melaka (Malaysia) and Dumai (Sumatra). Similar ferries travel between Penang (Malaysia) and Belawan (Sumatra), taking about five hours. From Johor Bahru in southern Malaysia, daily ferries run to Pulau Bintan in Sumatra's Riau Islands. Ferries connect Tarakan and Nunukan in East Kalimantan with Tawau in Sabah. For these routes you'll need a visa in advance. From Batam speedboats travel to Tanjung Buton with minibus connections to Pekanbaru on the Sumatran mainland. Otherwise, Pelni ships pass through Batam to and from Belawan (the port for Medan) and Jakarta. Boats also travel between Pulau Bintan and Singapore. Service includes Bintan Resort Ferries.

Visitor Highlights

The Indonesian archipelago is a collection of islands that holds untold treasures in its diversity of cultures, landscapes, and cities. With nearly 13,500 islands under its jurisdiction, Indonesia offers an adventure for everyone, from exploring ancient temples and hiking active volcanoes to diving in largely untouched waters. You can wander the busy streets of Jakarta, or take a step back in time with a visit to the remote villages of Tana Toraja; indulge in the bliss of Bali, or come face to face with the volatile Anak Krakatau. Whatever you choose, the experience is sure to be one filled with awe and appreciation for a country as steeped in history and natural beauty as this one.

Indonesia’s tourist sites include attractions from historical to natural to cultural. For historical tourist attractions you will find ancient temples and grand mosque. For natural tourist attractions you will find from breathtaking volcanoes to serene crater lake to Komodo Dragons and Orangutans to amazing underwater diving experience. On cultural tourist attractions, there are ancient funeral rites and tribal villages.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia

http://www.indonesia-investments.com/business/business-columns/telecommunications-in-indonesia-telkom-indosat-xl-axiata/item5480?

http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/muhammad-zulfikar-rakhmat/english-language-a-persis_b_9718692.html

https://www.quora.com/Do-people-speak-English-in-Indonesia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Indonesia

http://mindonmed.com/2012/04/medical-school-in-indonesia.html

http://indonesiaexpat.biz/other/info-for-expats/find-proper-dentist-indonesia/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291334454_A_Review_of_Indonesia%27s_Dental_Health_-Past_Present_and_Future

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/indonesia/transport/getting-there-away/

http://www.planetware.com/tourist-attractions/indonesia-ina.htm

http://allindonesiatravel.com/top-10-tourist-attractions-in-indonesia/

Dental Tourism – Serbia

 Serbia's Church of Saint Sava

Country Profile

Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state with a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, climatic and other boundaries. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the largest cities in Southeast Europe.

The climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. With mean January temperatures around 0 °C (32 °F), and mean July temperatures of 22 °C (72 °F), it can be classified into warm-humid continental or humid subtropical climate. In the north, the climate is more continental, with cold winters, and hot, humid summers along with well distributed rainfall patterns. In the south, summers and autumns are drier, and winters are relatively cold, with heavy inland snowfall in the mountains.  The areas with an altitude of 300 to 500 m (984 to 1,640 ft) have an average annual temperature of around 10.0 °C (50.0 °F), and over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) of altitude around 6.0 °C (42.8 °F).

Serbia is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity, its abundance of mountains and rivers make it an ideal environment for a variety of animals, many of which are protected including wolves, lynx, bears, foxes and stags.

National Demographic

Serbia (excluding Kosovo) has a total population of 7,186,862 and the overall population density is medium as it stands at 92.8 inhabitants per square kilometer. Serbs with 5,988,150 are the largest ethnic group in Serbia, representing 83% of the total population (excluding Kosovo). Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, then Romani, Bosniaks. Other minority groups include Croats, Slovaks, Albanians, Montenegrins, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians and Bulgarians. Chinese, are the only significant immigrant minority.

The Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.

The official language is Serbian, a standardized form of Serbo-Croatian, native to 88% of the population. Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Serbian Cyrillic is designated in the Constitution as the "official script", compared to Latin's status of "script in official use". Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn, as well as other standard forms of Serbo-Croatian: Bosnian and Croatian. All these languages are in official use in municipalities or cities where the ethnic minority exceeds 15% of the total population.

Telecommunications

Fixed telephone lines connect 89% of households in Serbia, and with about 9.1 million. The largest mobile operator is Telekom Srbija, followed by Telenor and Vip mobile. Some 64.7% of households have Internet connection, while practically the same percentages (64.2%) are provided with pay television services (i.e. 37% cable television, 16% IPTV, and 11% satellite). Digital television transition has been completed in 2015 with DVB-T2 standard for signal transmission.

ADSL is the main broadband Internet technology available on the retail market, catering for 47% of all subscribers. Cable modems are used by 25% of subscribers, mobile Internet by 19%, and wireless access by 5%. Regarding Internet access at fixed locations, Telekom Srbija, and SBB, holds by far the largest stakes as service providers, the former in the ADSL segment and the latter in the cable distribution segment. In the wholesale market, the liberalization of international interconnections in 2008 enabled direct global Internet access to a larger number of operators, thus dispensing with necessity for the intermediary wholesale services of incumbent operator Telekom Srbija. Regarding wholesale access to end users’ premises, both bit stream and local loop unbundling are available to ADSL providers on the ex-ante regulated markets.

English Literacy

Usually, Serbians speak one (official) language, Serbian language. But, Serbian language can be written in both Cyrillic and Latin script, which is kind of very unique. Good to know is that people from Montenegro, Croatia and Bosnia also speak the same Serbian language, with different dialect. Just like English, Scottish and Irish people for example. How much foreign language beside native Serbian language average Serbian person speaks, well, that's tough question, because answer can be applied to any other individual from any other European country. However, beside native Serbian language, people in Serbia also speak English, Russian, German, French, etc.. It mostly depends on selected primary school. In some parts of Serbia, eastern for example, some variants of Romanian languages are also present, and in western part of Serbia, Hungarian is used as well, just because of the national borders and town/cities nearby, but those are small percent. To sum everything, again - the official is: "Српски. Српски језик." (Serbian. Serbian Language), and each and every person is worth the number of languages it can use in everyday life. That old sentence applies globally on all of us with - no exceptions.

School System

Education in Serbia is divided into preschool (predškolsko), primary school (osnovna škola), secondary school (srednja škola) and higher education (visoko obrazovanje) levels. It is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Serbia.

Education starts in either preschools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of seven. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Students have the opportunity to attend gymnasiums and vocational schools for another four years, or to enroll in vocational training for 2 to 3 years. Following the completion of gymnasiums or vocational schools, students have the opportunity to attend university. Elementary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognized minorities in Serbia, where classes are held in Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Rusyn, Bulgarian as well as Bosnian and Croatian languages.

According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at 98% of population while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2%). Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or master's degrees, 5.6% have an associate degree), 49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 13.7% have not completed elementary education.

Higher Education

In the Republic of Serbia, access to higher education is open to every person who finishes a four-year secondary school. Higher education is divided into three levels.

Higher education in Serbia is provided at universities/faculties and colleges of applied studies and either are public or private.

The higher education system in Serbia offers two types of studies: academic studies realized at universities, and applied studies realized primarily at colleges of applied studies, and occasionally at universities as well.

There are two options concerning students’ fees. “Budget-financed” students have their tuition fees paid by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, but they need to pay administrative and other costs (entrance and application fees when enrolling in a higher education institution, fees for issuing diploma and diploma supplement, obligatory payments for exams (in certain cases applicable only to self-financing students), issuing certificates - of student’s status, of passed exams etc.).

The academic calendars are determined each year at institutional level, meaning that higher education institutions may have different calendars during the same academic year. The teaching part of an academic year consists of two semesters.

Higher education institutions determine the dates and the number of examination periods during the academic year, usually 4 to 6 periods, at the end of each semester and prior to the end of the academic year, after summer holidays.

Medical Education

Faculties (fakultet) of universities (univerzitet) and art academies (akademija umetnosti) last for 4 years until baccalaureate, 5 years until magistracy and 8 years until doctorate. Only exception is the Medical schools, lasting for 6 years until Doctor of Medicine.

In the field of medical science (studies of medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine), integrated courses are organized in the duration of 6 years and carrying a minimum of 360 ECTS. Pharmacy studies also offer integrated courses that carry 300 ECTS.

The Dentistry Profession

Regular visits to the dentist are a mandatory part of the oral health care, and when you do not notice the signs of oral diseases. Only a dentist has the knowledge and expertise to evaluate the state of your oral health. Your dentist and you are a team that takes care of your oral health. All questions you may have about oral health set your dentist. Talk to your dentist.

Which dentist you choose whom you will entrust the care of your oral health, is your personal decision. Your dentist will talk of it you will learn; the dentist will feel comfortable and safe.

You may find some of these tips to help you decide: Recommendation, Referral, List of dental offices, Dental Serbian Chamber of Commerce.

Each member of the dental team plays an important role in a well-functioning dental practice and expertise and knowledge to do their job.

Dentist - In specialized teachings and practices have your dentist make it the only one who can examine your teeth and mouth and diagnose problems that can threaten the health of your teeth and mouth and even the state of your general health.

Your dentist has the knowledge and expertise to Reviewing diagnose the state of your oral health; Propose and perform the necessary dental interventions with your consent and consultation with you in terms of the circumstances that allow for intervention; It helps you in understanding the importance of oral health and its preservation for life; Provides advice and recommendations about the behavior after any dental intervention.

Getting There for Dental Care

Serbia can be reached by land, air and the Danube River. Belgrade's Tesla Nikola Airport (BEG) handles most international flights. The airport website has a full list of airlines servicing Serbia. In the south, Niš Constantine The Great Airport (INI) links Niš with countries including Italy, Germany, Slovakia and the Netherlands. Serbia's national carrier is Air Serbia. It code-shares with airlines including Ethihad Airways, Aeroflot, Alitalia and KLM.

By Land, You can easily enter Serbia by land from Montenegro, Croatia, BiH, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary; coming in via Kosovo can present difficulties. Bus services to both Western Europe and Turkey are well developed. When crossing borders, officers will usually board the bus, take everyone's passports then return them after processing them; passengers wait in their seats. International rail connections leaving Serbia originate in Belgrade. Heading north and west, most call in at Novi Sad and Subotica. Heading east, they go via Niš. At border stops, officials will board the train and stamp your passport and check for relevant visas. Several trips from Serbia offer stunning slices of scenery, such as the route to bar on the Montenegrin coast. For more information, visit Serbian Railways.

If travelling to Serbia via Italy, several ferry companies make the crossing including Montenegro Lines which goes from Bari or Ancona to Bar, and Jadrolinija which runs services from Bari to Dubrovnik, Ancona to Split, and Ancona to Zadar.

Visitor Highlights

Serbia is home to a wide range of museums, national parks, nightlife destinations and architectural sights. Rich in history and beauty, Serbia is now becoming a popular tourist destination. In Belgrade, her capital and major city center, there is plenty of things to do to satisfy any age or taste, whether it is having a meal at an open air café before visiting a museum or checking out local artists working at the many exquisite galleries, both indoors and out, to be found throughout the country.

Novi Sad is another of Serbia's elegant cities, set away from Belgrade and offering visitors a little known 'pearl in the rough'. Picture perfect and set overlooking the famous Danube, this city also has plenty to offer including galleries, theatres and cultural centerpieces and landmarks. Known as the 'Serbian Athens', Novi Sad is the second largest city in the country of Serbia. 

With its old world history, those interested in relics from hundreds of years ago will enjoy visiting the Ottoman sights of Nis, the third largest city in Serbia. Roman ruins and the Skull Tower, an ancient Turkish fortress, is just some of the historical features to be found, and enjoyed in Serbia, as well as the city of Nis.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia

http://www.seelegal.org/upload/documents/Serbia%20montenegro/Telecommunications_BDK.pdf

https://www.quora.com/How-many-languages-do-Serbians-typically-know-how-to-speak

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Serbia

http://supporthere.org/page/higher-education-system-republic-serbia

https://www.premedicine-berlin.de/medical-studies-in-serbia/?lang=en

http://www.placidway.com/country/29/Serbia-Medical-Tourism

http://www.travelserbia.info/getthere-overview.php

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/serbia/transport/getting-there-away

http://www.worldtravelguide.net/serbia/travel-by

http://negaizdravlje.stomkoms.rs/cr/articles/poseta-stomatologu/